Category Archives: Chronological Koran

Chronological Koran Part IV(c): Medinan Period: A.D. 622-632

Chronological Koran compiled by Wolf Pangloss

Following the Yusuf Ali translation.

MEDINAN SURAS
Yathrib/Medina from the Hijra to the end. A D. 622-632

The Hijra was Mohammed’s flight to Yathrib, which was to become Medina. In Medina he became a leader and warlord, and the Muslims achieved great martial and political power, plus great wealth.

The city of Yathrib was not unknown to Muhammad. His grandfather and his great-grandmother were natives of the place and his father was buried there. There was a good deal of rivalry between Yathrib and Mecca and a man despised in the latter place would not thereby be at a disadvantage in the former. Then, for more than one hundred years there had been a blood feud between the men of the two great tribes who dwelt in Yathrib, and just now there was a disposition to put a stop to these dissensions by selecting some one person as a king or ruler. Hence the soil of Yathrib was thoroughly prepared for Islam. In a healthy community like that of Mecca it gained no hold; but in one that was ailing from long years of civil strife, it could spread apace. There was also a strong Jewish colony there which prepared the way for religious reform. The people of Mecca were utter materialists and could not rise to the spiritual part of the Prophet’s teaching. In Yathrib it was different; long intercourse with Jews had made such subjects as the unity of God, revelation through prophets and a future life more or less familiar to the inhabitants of the city. Islam owes much to Yathrib. It saved Muhammad from passing away as a mere enthusiast, rejected and disowned by his own people. It became the real birthplace of Islam, the cradle of its political power and the centre of its conquests throughout Arabia. It is thus justly named al-Madinatu’n-Nabi, the city of the Prophet, and its converts are truly termed the Ansar, or helpers of Islam. (Sell)

The Medinan Suras are the source of most of the parts of the Koran that non-Muslims object to. Given the doctrine of abrogation, the violent guidance in this time period took precedence over more peaceful, earlier verses. For instance, the Verse of the Sword (9:5) has been said to abrogate (render void) every Peace Verse in the Koran. This is certainly what Jihadists like Osama Bin Laden believe.

The Suras of the Medinan period show the way Muslims should act when they are dominant in a community, when the tree becomes large, its root system extensive, and other plants cannot grow in its shade.

The Medina Suras are too long for a single blog post. I have had to break them into multiple parts. This is the third, or “c” part.

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Chronological Koran Part IV(b): Medinan Period: A.D. 622-632

Chronological Koran compiled by Wolf Pangloss

Following the Yusuf Ali translation.

MEDINAN SURAS
Yathrib/Medina from the Hijra to the end. A D. 622-632

The Hijra was Mohammed’s flight to Yathrib, which was to become Medina. In Medina he became a leader and warlord, and the Muslims achieved great martial and political power, plus great wealth.

The city of Yathrib was not unknown to Muhammad. His grandfather and his great-grandmother were natives of the place and his father was buried there. There was a good deal of rivalry between Yathrib and Mecca and a man despised in the latter place would not thereby be at a disadvantage in the former. Then, for more than one hundred years there had been a blood feud between the men of the two great tribes who dwelt in Yathrib, and just now there was a disposition to put a stop to these dissensions by selecting some one person as a king or ruler. Hence the soil of Yathrib was thoroughly prepared for Islam. In a healthy community like that of Mecca it gained no hold; but in one that was ailing from long years of civil strife, it could spread apace. There was also a strong Jewish colony there which prepared the way for religious reform. The people of Mecca were utter materialists and could not rise to the spiritual part of the Prophet’s teaching. In Yathrib it was different; long intercourse with Jews had made such subjects as the unity of God, revelation through prophets and a future life more or less familiar to the inhabitants of the city. Islam owes much to Yathrib. It saved Muhammad from passing away as a mere enthusiast, rejected and disowned by his own people. It became the real birthplace of Islam, the cradle of its political power and the centre of its conquests throughout Arabia. It is thus justly named al-Madinatu’n-Nabi, the city of the Prophet, and its converts are truly termed the Ansar, or helpers of Islam. (Sell)

The Medinan Suras are the source of most of the parts of the Koran that non-Muslims object to. Given the doctrine of abrogation, the violent guidance in this time period took precedence over more peaceful, earlier verses. For instance, the Verse of the Sword (9:5) has been said to abrogate (render void) every Peace Verse in the Koran. This is certainly what Jihadists like Osama Bin Laden believe.

The Suras of the Medinan period show the way Muslims should act when they are dominant in a community, when the tree becomes large, its root system extensive, and other plants cannot grow in its shade.

The Medina Suras are too long for a single blog post. I have had to break them into multiple parts. This is the second, or “b” part.

Continue reading

Chronological Koran Part IV(a): Medinan Period: A.D. 622-632

Chronological Koran compiled by Wolf Pangloss

Following the Yusuf Ali translation.

MEDINAN SURAS
Yathrib/Medina from the Hijra to the end. A D. 622-632

The Hijra was Mohammed’s flight to Yathrib, which was to become Medina. In Medina he became a leader and warlord, and the Muslims achieved great martial and political power, plus great wealth.

The city of Yathrib was not unknown to Muhammad. His grandfather and his great-grandmother were natives of the place and his father was buried there. There was a good deal of rivalry between Yathrib and Mecca and a man despised in the latter place would not thereby be at a disadvantage in the former. Then, for more than one hundred years there had been a blood feud between the men of the two great tribes who dwelt in Yathrib, and just now there was a disposition to put a stop to these dissensions by selecting some one person as a king or ruler. Hence the soil of Yathrib was thoroughly prepared for Islam. In a healthy community like that of Mecca it gained no hold; but in one that was ailing from long years of civil strife, it could spread apace. There was also a strong Jewish colony there which prepared the way for religious reform. The people of Mecca were utter materialists and could not rise to the spiritual part of the Prophet’s teaching. In Yathrib it was different; long intercourse with Jews had made such subjects as the unity of God, revelation through prophets and a future life more or less familiar to the inhabitants of the city. Islam owes much to Yathrib. It saved Muhammad from passing away as a mere enthusiast, rejected and disowned by his own people. It became the real birthplace of Islam, the cradle of its political power and the centre of its conquests throughout Arabia. It is thus justly named al-Madinatu’n-Nabi, the city of the Prophet, and its converts are truly termed the Ansar, or helpers of Islam. (Sell)

The Medinan Suras are the source of most of the parts of the Koran that non-Muslims object to. Given the doctrine of abrogation, the violent guidance in this time period took precedence over more peaceful, earlier verses. For instance, the Verse of the Sword (9:5) has been said to abrogate (render void) every Peace Verse in the Koran. This is certainly what Jihadists like Osama Bin Laden believe.

The Suras of the Medinan period show the way Muslims should act when they are dominant in a community, when the tree becomes large, its root system extensive, and other plants cannot grow in its shade.

The Medina Suras are too long for a single blog post. I have had to break them into multiple parts. This is the first, or “a” part.

Continue reading

Chronological Koran Part III: Late Meccan Period: A.D. 619-622

Chronological Koran compiled by Wolf Pangloss

Following the Yusuf Ali translation.

MECCAN SURAS
Third Period
From the seventh year to the Hijra. A.D. 619-22.

In the third period, the Quraysh expanded the persecution of Mohammed and the Muslims to his clan, the Hashem. They boycotted the Hashem to persuade them to drop their protection of Mohammed. The surahs of the third Meccan period show the way Muslims should act when they have grown beyond utter weakness, continue to grow, face opposition by some, but are not yet dominant in a community, when the seedling grows into a large shrub or small tree (that just might resemble a large weed and spur a gardener to attempt to pull it out by the roots) and branches out, shading the ground beneath.

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Chronological Koran Part II: Middle Meccan Period: A.D. 617-619

Chronological Koran compiled by Wolf Pangloss

Following the Yusuf Ali translation.

MECCAN SURAS
Second Period
The fifth and sixth years of the Prophet’s Mission A.D. 617-19.

The struggle against Mohammed’s tribe, the Quraysh, waxed and waned over the time that Mohammed spent in Mecca establishing the first community of Muslims. The second period was distinguished by slowly increasing opposition from the Qurayshi against Mohammed and the Muslims. In this struggle Mohammed was protected and succored by his clan, the Hashem, the hereditary princes of Mecca and environs. The suras of this and the third period are distinguished by their focus on the divine inspiration of the Koran, and on revealing the ties between the Islamic teaching and the teachings of Judaism and Christianity, the other religions of the book.

The suras of the second Meccan period describe the way that Muslims act when they are still weak, but have established a coherent but vulnerable community, must focus on defense, and are growing, when the seed sprouts and its roots seek into the earth.

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Chronological Koran Part I: Early Meccan Period: A.D. 612-617

Chronological Koran compiled by Wolf Pangloss

Following the Yusuf Ali translation.

MECCAN SURAS
First Period

From the first to the fifth year of the Prophet’s Mission. A.D. 612-17.

The Suras of the early Meccan period exhibit the dark feelings and suspicions of the Prophet, though the language is often very fine and the rhetorical cadence is full of poetic colour. The oaths with which he strengthens his teaching are very characteristic. The strong and comminatory attacks on his adversaries, of whom he even singles out some, are a marked feature of this period of his career. These Suras are the finest in the whole Qur’an and in them the passionate agitation of the Prophet appears at its height. (Sell)

The early Meccan suras were recited by Mohammed when he was just beginning his career as the prophet of the Arabs. This section of the Koran is poetic, relatively mild, and tolerant, though there is some fire and brimstone reserved for those among the Meccans who persecuted the Muslims, especially those of lower status than Mohammed. The early Meccan suras describe the Muslim way when the Muslims are outnumbered, weak, without support in a place, when they are preparing the ground and planting the seed.

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Chronological Koran (Revisited)

The Chronological Koran (Revisited)
Compiled by Wolf Pangloss

When I first started to write these blogbits of bloggerel into the void of the blogosphere my first endeavor was to assemble a chronological version of the Koran. For various reasons it didn’t get done at the time. Now it is high time to go forth and do it again.

I intend to repair at least one mistake I made at first when I followed the order given by Jalalu’d-Din as-Syuti, which I know believe to be incorrect. The order given by Nöldeke via Sell is more aesthetically and thematically coherent than the others, provides better continuity, and that is the only explanation for this choice.

Edward Sell introduced his book on the Historical Development of the Koran by listing the Suras of the Koran in the order in which they seem by the evidence of the ahadith and their own internal structure to have been narrated.

For the dates and the order of the Suras, or chapters of the Qur’an, I have followed Nöldeke’s Geschichte des Qorans, which seems to me to be the best and most authoritative book on the subject. The following table shows the order in which Nöldeke arranges the Suras. He divides the Meccan ones into three groups, the earlier, middle, and later periods, and places all the Medina Suras in a fourth group.MECCAN SURAS First Period.–From the first to the fifth year of the Prophet’s Mission. A.D. 612-17.

96, 74, 111, 106, 108, 104, 107, 102, 105, 92, 90, 94, 93, 97, 86, 91, 8o, 68, 87, 95, 103, 85, 73, 101, 99, 82, 81, 53, 84, 100, 79, 77 78, 88, 89, 75, 83, 69, 51, 52, 56, 70, 55, 112, 109, 113, 114, I.

Second Period.–The fifth and sixth years of the Prophet’s Mission. A.D. 617-19.

54, 37, 71, 76, 44, 50, 20, 26, 15, 19, 38, 36, 43, 72, 67, 23, 21, 25, 17, 27, 18.

Third Period.–From the seventh year to the Hijra. A.D. 619-22.

32, 41, 45, 16, 30, 11, 14, 12, 40, 28, 39, 29, 31, 42, 10, 34, 35, 7, 46, 6, 13.

MEDINA SURAS

From the Hijra to the end. A D. 622-32.

2, 98, 64, 62, 8, 47, 3, 61, 57, 4, 65, 59, 33, 63, 24,58, 22, 48, 66, 60, 110, 49, 9, 5

In the quotations from the Qur’an I have used the translations of Rodwell and of Palmer and occasionally those of Sale and also of Lane. I have compared these with the Persian translations of Husain and of Shah Wali Ullah Muhaddath and also with the Urdu translations by ‘Abdu’l-Qadir, Dr. Nadhir Ahmad Khan and Ahmad Shah.

The Traditions (Ahadith) of Bukhari and of Tirmidi have been consulted.

Following posts in this series will be in the order given in Sell’s list. One post for each of the four time periods. Minimal commentary in the posts. With comments open. I will be putting my own comments in the comments section, and expect that readers may wish to add their own.

Updated: Rather than the original plan to make one post per Sura, thus removing the very context that the chronological ordering was supposed to provide, I’ve changed course to make one post for each of the time periods identified in Sell’s table, above.

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